In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed here.
- Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state.
- Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate,
- Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write
- Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
- Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write.
- Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.
The lower levels of Blooms Taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension and application) help us learn to replicate what has already been done elsewhere while the higher levels of Blooms Taxonomy (analysis, synthesis and evaluation) drive innovation. The current educational system appears to focus only on equipping the lower levels of functionality by using bounded problems with simple answers that can be quickly answered in homework or exams and are easy to grade. (Prof Ian T. Fergusion, George Institute of Technology, GA, USA)
The lesson about learning from Confucius in China (551-479 BC), ~3000 years ago
Right Attitude is the most important toward successful research
To have excellent research work, the following three points are critical
1. Have solid background on the fundamental principle of the research topic
2. Be persistent to work till success
3. Have an innovative and open mind
How to Write Research Papers:
1. M. Ashby (Eng. Dept, Cambridge Univ.), How to Write a Paper, 6th ed., Apr, 2005.
2. S.D. Senturia (MIT), How to avoid the Reviewer’s Axe: One Editor’s View, J. MEMS, 12(3), 229-232, 2003. (dx.doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2003.814319)
3. G.M. Whitesides (Havard), Whiteside’s Group: Writing a Paper, Advanced Material, 16(15),1375-1377, 2004. (dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.200400767)